What is kidney stone disease and what signs does it show?
Kidney stones (CKD) are a condition in which stones form in the kidneys. This may occur due to an imbalance in the body between substances dissolved in the urine, such as calcium, oxalates and ammonium. Stones can be of various materials, including calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and urate.
Signs of PCB can vary depending on the size and location of the stones. These may include lower back pain, diarrhea, nausea, headache, fever, high blood pressure, and urinary problems. In rare cases, more serious problems can occur, such as kidney infection, kidney failure, and anemia.
Article created Dr. OLEG KORZHYKOV PAVLYUK during moderation Urologist Dr. JOSE ANTONIO QUEIPO
Types of kidney stones: causes and consequences
The kidneys are an important organ for filtering and removing excess from the body. However, sometimes kidney stones can form. This can lead to serious health consequences. In this article, we will look at the types of kidney stones, their causes and consequences. Kidney stones can be of different sizes and consist of various substances. They may be from calcium, phosphate, ammonium, urate, or other substances. Stones can be small or quite large.
Kidney stones can form due to imbalanced levels of substances in the blood. For example, high levels of calcium or phosphate in the blood can form stones. Also, stones can appear due to lack of water or indigestion. Lithiasis can lead to serious consequences. They can lead to pain, blood in the urine, infections, reduced kidney function, and even complete loss of kidneys. Stones can also lead to congestion, which can lead to infections.
Calcium oxalate is a substance that is usually present in urine in small amounts. However, when calcium oxalate levels become too high, there is a risk of developing kidney stones.
There are two main types of calcium oxalate - monohydrate and dihydrate. Calcium oxalate monohydrate is about 55% of all stones, and dihydrate – about 18%.
Monohydrate calcium oxalate usually appears under conditions where there is hyperoxaluria and the calcium/oxalate ratio is low. Medullary spongy kidney also predisposes to this type of kidney stones. Observed under a microscope as a calcium plaque - Randall's Plaque deposited in the interstitial tissue of the renal papilla.
Calcium oxalate dihydrate usually occurs with hypercalciuria and a high calcium/oxalate ratio. A medullary spongy kidney also predisposes to this type of kidney stone. Randall's plaque is observed under the microscope as a calcium plaque deposited in the interstitial tissue of the renal papilla.
The reasons for the formation of stones containing calcium oxalate can be different. One factor may be an increase in calcium levels in the urine. This can happen as a result of certain diseases, such as hyperparathyroidism, or due to the high intake of foods rich in calcium.
Another risk factor is high levels of oxalate in the urine. Oxalate can be obtained from foods such as spinach, rhubarb, fish, and certain fruits and vegetables. It can also be formed in the body as a metabolic product. Some people may be predisposed to kidney stones due to hereditary factors. Also, the risk of developing kidney stones increases in the presence of other diseases, such as gallbladder disease or kidney failure.
Treatment for kidney stones may include dietary changes, increased fluid intake, and medications that can help break down stones or prevent them from forming.
Uric acid is a metabolic product of purine bases found in many foods, especially meat, fish, cheese, and nuts. Normally, uric acid is excreted from the body through the kidneys, but when it is in excess, it can crystallize and form stones. Stones can clog the urinary tract and cause severe pain, as well as problems with urination and urinary tract infections.
This explains why kidney stones often develop in people with elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. This condition is called hyperuricemia and can be caused by malnutrition, obesity, hereditary predisposition, as well as various diseases, including gout, a disease associated with the formation of uric acid crystals in the joints.
There is also hyperuricosuria, low urine pH, urinary retention. There are some medical conditions such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes or benign prostatic hyperplasia that predispose to this type of kidney stone. WE HAVE OTHER ARTICLES ABOUT URIC ACID
To prevent kidney stones and reduce the level of uric acid in the blood, it is recommended to follow a healthy lifestyle, including eating right, drinking enough fluids, not abusing alcohol, controlling weight and physical activity. It is also important to undergo regular medical examinations and monitor the condition of the kidneys.
If there are risk factors for the development of kidney stones, including an elevated level of uric acid in the blood, you should consult a doctor and monitor your health. Your doctor may prescribe treatment that includes medications, diet, and other methods to lower your blood uric acid levels and prevent kidney stones.
Summing up, we can say that the relationship between uric acid and kidney stones is very close. Reducing the level of uric acid in the blood can help prevent the development of this disease and reduce the risk of its complications. Therefore, you should be attentive to your health and not ignore the problems associated with the kidneys and urinary tract.
Struvite is a mixture of ammonium phosphate and magnesium, which is formed in the kidneys when certain factors are present. This mixture can cause the development of kidney stones. This type of lithiasis, which is only found with urinary tract infections and bacteria capable of producing urease.
This may be due to impaired kidney function, the presence of excess phosphate and ammonium in the blood, and the presence of magnesium in the urine. In the presence of these factors, struvite begins to crystallize in the kidneys, forming small stones. Over time, these stones can grow and become large, leading to the development of kidney stones.
The symptoms of kidney stones can vary depending on the size and number of stones. One of the most common symptoms is a sharp pain in the lower abdomen that may radiate down the urinary tract. There may also be frequent visits to the toilet, severe pain when urinating, blood in the urine, and even acute urinary retention.
Various methods are used to diagnose kidney stones, including ultrasound and X-ray tomography. Treatment may vary depending on the size and number of stones, as well as how advanced the disease is.
To prevent kidney stones, you need to monitor your health, eat right, drink enough water and regularly undergo medical examinations. If symptoms are present, a doctor should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment.
It is important to remember that struvite is a serious disease that can lead to various complications, including chronic kidney disease. Therefore, if symptoms appear, seek medical attention.
Hydroxyapatite and brushite.
Hydroxyapatite is a crystalline compound composed of calcium, phosphate and hydroxide. It is a major constituent of bone and teeth, but can also form in the urine, especially if urinary calcium levels are elevated. Hydroxyapatite crystals can be small and soft or large and hard, which can lead to kidney stones.
Calcium phosphate dihydrate is formed in hypercalciuria, as well as in primary hyperparathyroidism.
Brushitis is another type of crystals that form in the urine. It is composed of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate and is usually formed in acidic urine. Brushite crystals are usually rhombic in shape and can be very hard and sharp, which can lead to serious health problems.
Treatment for kidney stones may include medication, diet, and increased fluid intake. However, in some cases, surgery may be required to remove the stones.
One new treatment for kidney stones is the use of hydroxyapatite as a dietary supplement. Hydroxyapatite can bind phosphate in the urine, preventing the formation of crystals and stones. This treatment is still in the research phase, but has already shown some efficacy in the treatment of kidney stones.
Phosphate stones made from cabapatite mixed with some other calcium phosphate. This type of kidney stones appears with hypercalciuria, urinary tract infections, with medullary spongy kidney, renal tubular acidosis, Sjögren's syndrome.
Medullary Spongy Kidney is a genetic disease that leads to impaired kidney function. In people with medullary spongy kidney, the formation of kidney stones is often a serious problem. In this case, calcium phosphate may be one of the main components of the stones. In addition, people with medullary spongy kidney may have impaired phosphorus metabolism, which can lead to elevated blood calcium phosphate levels.
Managing blood calcium phosphate levels may play an important role in the prevention of kidney stones in people with medullary spongiform kidney. One way to manage calcium phosphate levels in the blood is through diet. Limiting calcium phosphate-rich foods, such as dairy, eggs, fish, nuts, and others, can help manage blood levels of this mineral.
Another way to control the level of calcium phosphate in the blood is to take medications such as phosphate binders. These drugs bind phosphate in the intestines, which leads to a decrease in the level of calcium phosphate in the blood. The use of such drugs can help prevent the formation of kidney stones and the development of kidney failure.
L-cystine and stones consisting of this amino acid in the kidneys are formed only in the presence of an autosomal recessive genetic disease (cystinuria).
Cystinuria is a rare genetic disease that is caused by impaired L-cystine metabolism. It is an autosomal recessive disease that is inherited from parents who have carrier genes. Cystinuria is manifested in the inability of the kidneys to retain L-cystine in the body, which is why it is excreted in the urine. Cystinuria can lead to serious complications and health problems. One of the main symptoms of cystinuria is the frequent formation of kidney stones. Stones can lead to lower back pain, sharp abdominal pain, and painful urination.
Diagnosis of kidney stone disease: what methods are used?
Diagnosis of nephrolithiasis includes the use of various diagnostic methods. The main methods for diagnosing kidney stones include blood and urine tests, ultrasound, computed tomography and radiography.
Blood and urine tests allow the doctor to determine the level of calcium, as well as other indicators associated with kidney stone disease. Ultrasound allows the doctor to see stones in the kidneys and ureters. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow the doctor to view the kidneys and ureters in 3D. X-rays allow the doctor to look at the bones and determine if they are affected by stones.
All these methods of diagnosing nephrolithiasis help the doctor to correctly diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment.
Treatment of kidney stone disease: what methods are used?
Kidney stones are one of the most common kidney diseases. It occurs due to the accumulation of stones and deposits in the kidneys, which can lead to diseases and even their complete loss. Treatment for kidney stones depends on the type and size of the stones, as well as the condition of the patient. Typically, the following methods are used to treat kidney stones:
1. Drug treatment. This method is used to dissolve stones and prevent their occurrence. Depending on the patient's condition, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics, alpha-blockers, antiseptics, or other medications.
2. Surgical treatment. This method is used when the stones are too large to dissolve or if there are problems with the kidneys. Various methods are used in surgical treatment, including endoscopic surgery, removal of stones through the bladder, laparoscopy, and others.
3. Lithotripsy. This method is used to dissolve stones using a wave of shock energy. It can be used to dissolve stones that are too large for medication to dissolve.
4. Extracorporeal oligophrenic lithotripsy (ESWL). This method is used to dissolve stones using a shock wave through the skin.
How to prevent kidney stones: proper nutrition, regular treatments and other tips
Prevention of kidney stones can be achieved with proper nutrition, regular treatments and other tips. Proper nutrition includes drinking enough fluids, mainly water. This helps prevent the deposition of mineral salts and other substances in the kidneys. It is also recommended to limit the intake of foods high in mineral salts, such as salt, as well as foods high in fat and cholesterol.
Regular treatments, such as diathermy, can help prevent kidney stones. This is a procedure in which the patient is asked to drink large amounts of liquid in order to flush mineral salts and other substances from the kidneys.
Other tips that can help prevent kidney stones include proper nutrition, regular intake of vitamins and minerals, and regular health check-ups. It is important to remember that the prevention of kidney stones should be thoughtful and constant.
To prevent kidney stones, you need to monitor the level of substances in the blood, drink enough fluids, take drugs designed to dissolve stones, and monitor your diet.