What is kidney stone disease and what signs does it show?
Kidney stones (CKD) are a condition in which stones form in the kidneys. This may occur due to an imbalance in the body between substances dissolved in the urine, such as calcium, oxalates and ammonium. Stones can be of various materials, including calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and urate.
Signs of PCB can vary depending on the size and location of the stones. These may include lower back pain, diarrhea, nausea, headache, fever, high blood pressure, and urinary problems. In rare cases, more serious problems can occur, such as kidney infection, kidney failure, and anemia.
Article created Dr. OLEG KORZHYKOV PAVLYUK during moderation Urologist Dr. JOSE ANTONIO QUEIPO
Types of kidney stones: causes and consequences
The kidneys are an important organ for filtering and removing excess from the body. However, sometimes kidney stones can form. This can lead to serious health consequences. In this article, we will look at the types of kidney stones, their causes and consequences. Kidney stones can be of different sizes and consist of various substances. They may be from calcium, phosphate, ammonium, urate, or other substances. Stones can be small or quite large.
Types of kidney stones:
Kidney stones can form due to imbalanced levels of substances in the blood. For example, high levels of calcium or phosphate in the blood can form stones. Also, stones can appear due to lack of water or indigestion.
Lithiasis can lead to serious consequences. They can lead to pain, blood in the urine, infections, reduced kidney function, and even complete loss of kidneys. Stones can also lead to congestion, which can lead to infections.
There are two types of oxalates: monohydrate calcium oxalate (55%) and dihydrate calcium oxalate(18%).
Monohydrate calcium oxalate usually appears under conditions where there is hyperoxaluria and the calcium/oxalate ratio is low. Medullary spongy kidney also predisposes to this type of kidney stones. Observed under a microscope as a calcium plaque - Randall's Plaque deposited in the interstitial tissue of the renal papilla.
Calcium oxalate dihydrate usually occurs with hypercalciuria and a high calcium/oxalate ratio. A medullary spongy kidney also predisposes to this type of kidney stone. Randall's plaque is observed under the microscope as a calcium plaque deposited in the interstitial tissue of the renal papilla.
Uric acid stones are caused by excess uric acid in the urine, which can be caused by a diet high in purines.
There is hyperuricosuria, low urine pH, urinary retention. There are some medical conditions, such as insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes or benign prostatic hyperplasia, that predispose to this type of kidney stone. WE HAVE OTHER ARTICLES ABOUT URIC ACID
Struvite is an ammonium and magnesium phosphate, a type of lithiasis found only in urinary tract infections and bacteria capable of producing urease.
Hydroxyapatite or brushite.
Calcium phosphate dihydrate is formed in hypercalciuria, as well as in primary hyperparathyroidism.
Phosphate stones made from cabapatite mixed with some other calcium phosphate. This type of kidney stones appears with hypercalciuria, urinary tract infections, with medullary spongy kidney, renal tubular acidosis, Sjögren's syndrome.
L-cystine and stones consisting of this amino acid in the kidneys are formed only in the presence of an autosomal recessive genetic disease (cystinuria).
Diagnosis of kidney stone disease: what methods are used?
Diagnosis of nephrolithiasis includes the use of various diagnostic methods. The main methods for diagnosing kidney stones include blood and urine tests, ultrasound, computed tomography and radiography.
Blood and urine tests allow the doctor to determine the level of calcium, as well as other indicators associated with kidney stone disease. Ultrasound allows the doctor to see stones in the kidneys and ureters. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow the doctor to view the kidneys and ureters in 3D. X-rays allow the doctor to look at the bones and determine if they are affected by stones.
All these methods of diagnosing nephrolithiasis help the doctor to correctly diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment.
Treatment of kidney stone disease: what methods are used?
Kidney stones are one of the most common kidney diseases. It occurs due to the accumulation of stones and deposits in the kidneys, which can lead to diseases and even their complete loss. Treatment for kidney stones depends on the type and size of the stones, as well as the condition of the patient. Typically, the following methods are used to treat kidney stones:
1. Drug treatment. This method is used to dissolve stones and prevent their occurrence. Depending on the patient's condition, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics, alpha-blockers, antiseptics, or other medications.
2. Surgical treatment. This method is used when the stones are too large to dissolve or if there are problems with the kidneys. Various methods are used in surgical treatment, including endoscopic surgery, removal of stones through the bladder, laparoscopy, and others.
3. Lithotripsy. This method is used to dissolve stones using a wave of shock energy. It can be used to dissolve stones that are too large for medication to dissolve.
4. Extracorporeal oligophrenic lithotripsy (ESWL). This method is used to dissolve stones using a shock wave through the skin.
How to prevent kidney stones: proper nutrition, regular treatments and other tips
Prevention of kidney stones can be achieved with proper nutrition, regular treatments and other tips. Proper nutrition includes drinking enough fluids, mainly water. This helps prevent the deposition of mineral salts and other substances in the kidneys. It is also recommended to limit the intake of foods high in mineral salts, such as salt, as well as foods high in fat and cholesterol.
Regular treatments, such as diathermy, can help prevent kidney stones. This is a procedure in which the patient is asked to drink large amounts of liquid in order to flush mineral salts and other substances from the kidneys.
Other tips that can help prevent kidney stones include proper nutrition, regular intake of vitamins and minerals, and regular health check-ups. It is important to remember that the prevention of kidney stones should be thoughtful and constant.
To prevent kidney stones, you need to monitor the level of substances in the blood, drink enough fluids, take drugs designed to dissolve stones, and monitor your diet.