Bladder cancer is a common occurrence in modern urology. Bladder cancer is the fifth in the list of malignant neoplasms. Urothelial tumors constitute the main group of diseases and have several forms: malignant tumors of the bladder, either non-penetrating into the muscles of the bladder (TVNIM) and infiltrative (TVIM), tumors of the bladder and upper urinary tract. These tumors have a high potential for recurrence and progression to a more severe form, so close and long-term follow-up is essential!
The main features of bladder tumors are their recurrent nature and the risk of progression of the stage (infiltration) of tissues and degree (histological differentiation): 70% tumors that do not involve bladder musculature recur, while 10-20% tumors progress towards the invasive stage.
Bladder cancer mostly affects men, and tobacco is the main risk factor. The most common manifestation is the presence of blood in the urine, hematuria, and sometimes urinary disorders.
DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER CANCER IN SPAIN
The diagnosis is based on the results of imaging studies (ultrasound and Urotomography (uro-CT). Ultrasound provides complete information about the bladder and makes sure that there are no upper urinary tract dilatations. Resection of the tumor is necessary for pathological examination. Endoscopic resection is the initial treatment for bladder tumors. Further treatment depends on the extent and stage of cancer cell infiltration.Urinary cytology is more useful in high grade tumors. here.
BLADDER CANCER TREATMENT IN SPAIN
Treatment of malignant tumors that do not penetrate the muscular layer of the bladder is endoscopic resection of the tumor with adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy, depending on the risk of recurrence. The standard treatment for invasive bladder tumors is total cystectomy (removal of the bladder).
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the mainstay of treatment for metastatic tumors. Tumors of the upper urinary tract are less common than bladder forms, but represent more drastic treatment options. The standard treatment for these injuries is total nephroureterectomy.
Although the prognosis and treatment of urothelial tumors can vary greatly depending on the type of injury, it is important to emphasize the need for follow-up at short intervals after initial treatment in order to detect the earliest potential more serious recurrence. Eliminating risk factors for tumors, either by quitting smoking or changing jobs, is also important to reduce the risk of recurrence.
Urothelial tumors are common, potentially serious neoplasms, with a high risk of progression and recurrence of malignant tumors. Long term monitoring is essential.
If the tumor does not invade the muscle layer, then the optimal treatment is endoscopic transurethral resection and immunotherapy.
The standard treatment for infiltrative tumors is total cystectomy. The urination solution is chosen depending on the circumstances. Radiochemotherapy, or combination chemotherapy, targets metastatic or advanced tumors (T3). The standard treatment for tumors of the upper excretory tract is total nephroureterectomy.
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